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KUNDAL — is one of kinds of ornamental art. Kondal or in other words «relief painting» is one of the
traditional fine arts widespread in Central Asia, which is still alive and keeps on successfully developing
just in Tajikistan. Researchers traced this rare type of art back to the XV century A.D. when in some monuments of the ancient center of Tajik culture Samarqand (architectural complexes Shahi Zinda,Gouri
Amir,Ak-Sara) had arisen a new type of interior decoration. At that time the surfaces of pendentive
domes and stalactites inside buildings were decorated with ornamental painting rich in gold bearing
a strong resemblance of brocade. The beauty of koundal lay in an intricate interlacing of parallel images,
vegetative and geometrical combinations, matching of various colors, which one had to be able to read
and interpret. .
To make a koundal piece of art, a wooden board needs to be prior plastered with ganch (alabaster)
and then a clay pattern can be applied, but nowadays painters tend to use stronger materials, such as
cement. According to medieval canon, a thin layer of gild had to be applied over the relief of the
pattern prior to painting and the background had to be filled in dark blue, whereas most of the painters
of today have receded from that practice. After that the panel will be painted in different colors of
organic nature. Today the painters prefer to use oil paints. Gold (sometimes replaced with bronze)
played a particular sacral and sacred role in making koundal, because at all times it symbolized divine
light and glory. Metal shine of its little elements and contours made the chosen pattern look chiseled
and the smallest details of the ornament didn’t seem lost in a monumental composition.